September 17, 2011 § Leave a comment
Q.1 Explain the difference between E-1, E-2, E-3 evangelism. Which of the three does Winter consider most powerful? Why? Which does he consider most urgent? Why?
-Let’s give labels to these different kinds of evangelism. Where an Ao Naga won another Ao, let us call that E-1evangelism. Where an Ao went across a tribal language boundary to a sister language and won the Santadam, we’ll call it E-2 evangelism. But then if an Ao Naga goes to another region of India, to a totally strange language, his task will be considerably more difficult than E-1 or even E-2 evangelism. We will call it E-3 evangelism. P.342
-Everyone who is here in this Congress has his own E-1 sphere in which he speaks his own language and builds on all the intuition which derives from his experience within his own culture. The only barrier his listeners had to cross was the boundary between the Christian community and the world immediately outside. This is ‘near neighbor’ evangelism.
-In addition to E-1 sphere,then perhaps for almost all of us there is an E-2 sphere－groups of people who speak language that are a little different, or who are involved in culture patterns sufficiently in contrast with our own as to make communication more difficult. Such people can be reached with a little extra trouble and with sincere attempts, but it will take us out of our way to reach them. More importantly, they were people who, once converted, will not feel at home in the church which we attend. They may grow faster spiritually if they can find Christian fellowship among people of their own kind and they are more likely to win others of their own social grouping.
-In E-3 evangelism, it involves even greater cultural distance. This is the kind of evangelism that is necessary in the third sphere of Jesus’ statement, ‘to the uttermost part of the earth.’ The people needing to be reached in this sphere live, work, talk, and think in languages and cultural patterns utterly different from those native to the evangelist. P.344
－In summary, the master pattern of the expansion of the Christian movement is first for special E-2 and E-3 efforts to cross cultural barriers into new communities and to establish strong, on going, vigorously evangelizing denominations, and then for that national church to carry the work forward on the really high-powered E-1 level. We are thus forced to believe that until every tribe and tongue has a strong, powerfully evangelizing church in it, and thus, an E-1 witness within it, E-2 and E-3 efforts coming from outside are still essential and highly urgent. P.345
Q.2 ‘Christian unity cannot be healthy if it infringes upon Christian liberty.’ Do you agree? What significance does this issue have for ‘practical evangelistic strategies’?
Yes, because unity does not have to require uniformity, there must be such a thing as healthy diversity in human society and in the Christian world Church. P.350
－In Christ there is freedom and liberty, people must be free either to retain or abandon their native language and life-style that are not inimical to the gospel of Christ. P352
Young people have the freedom in Christ to meet together by themselves if they choose to, and especially if this allows them to attract other young people who would likely not come to Christ in an age-integrated service.
About evangelistic strategy in the forming of separate congregation, it must be considered an area of Christian liberty, and is to be decided purely on the basis of whether or not it allows the gospel to be presented effectively to more people－whether it is evangelistically strategic.
People can choose their church associations voluntarily according to their own way of life pretty consistently.
We are never suggesting an enforced segregation, God has allowed different life-style to exist in different forms, and that this flexibility has been exercised throughout history. Let us never be content with mere isolation, but let us everlastingly emphasize that the great richness of our Christian tradition can only be realized as these different life ways maintain creative contact.
Let us be cautious about hastening to uniformity. If the whole world church could be gathered into a single congregation, there would eventually and inevitably be a loss of a great deal of the rich diversity of the present Christian traditions.
Paul the Evangelist saying we must go to these people within the systems in which they operate. There is a cry of a cross-cultural evangelist, we can’t make every local church fit the pattern of every other local church. But we must have radically new efforts of cross-cultural evangelism in order to effectively witness to 2387 million people. We cannot ignore this highest priority. P.353
September 16, 2011 § Leave a comment
Q.1 Briefly define the term ‘the bridges of God’ and explain the significance of these bridges for mission strategy.
-Missionaries to utilize the ‘bridges’ of family and kinship ties within each people group thereby prompting ‘people movement’ to Christ.
-These bridges can be established in some class, caste, tribe or other segment of society which will over a period of years, so bring groups of its related families to Christian faith that the whole people is Christianized in a few decades.
Q.2 Are group decisions valid? Why or why not? Explain the strategic importance of encouraging ‘multi-individual’ decisions.
-Group decisions are valid in innumerable subsocieties which make up non-Christian nations. The individual does not think of himself as a self-sufficient unit, but as part of the group. His business affairs, his children’s marriages, his personal problems, or the difficulties he has with his wife are properly settled by group thinking. People become Christian as this group-mind is brought into a lifegiving relationship to Jesus as Lord. P.325
-It is important to note that the group decision is not the sum of separate individual decisions. As the group considers becoming Christian, tension mounts and excitement rises. A prolonged informal vote-taking is under way. A change of religion involves a community change. Only as its members move together, does change become healthy and constructive. P.325 3rd paragraph
Q.3 ….What is the significance of the idea of ‘People movements’ for the ministry among ‘unreached people?’
-The movements are the outcome of the mysterious movement of the Spirit of God. They have provided over 90% of the growth of the newer churches throughout the world. The great bulk of the membership and of the congregations of the younger churches consists of converts and the descendants of converts won in People Movement.
-They have provided the Christian movement with permanent churches rooted in the soil of hundred of thousand of villages.
-They have the advantage of being naturally indigenous.
-The ‘spontaneous expansion of the Church’ is natural
-These movement have enormous possibilities of growth,
-These movements provide a sound pattern of becoming Christian. Becoming a Christian is seen to mean not change in standard of living made possible by foreign funds, but change in inner character made possible by the power of God.
September 15, 2011 § Leave a comment
Q.1 What does Zwemer mean by ‘inverted homesickness?’
The way in which missionaries unlearn the love of the old home, die to their native land, and wed their hearts to the people they have served and won, to lay their bones where they spent their hearts for Christ. This passion to call that country their home which was most in need of the Gospel. In this passion all other passion died; before this vision all other visions faded; this call drowned all other voices. People have this passion of a homeless Christ had this ‘inverted homesickness.’ P. 312
Q.2 Are the challenges in this article an inspiration or a disturbance to you? Restate the challenge in this article in your own words.
Jesus Christ has come into the world, and it was a great unoccupied mission field. He came and His welcome was derision. His life, suffering, and His throne, the Cross. As He came, He expects us to go. We must follow in His footprints. P. 312 2nd paragraph
Q.3 ….Restate his arguments with today’s situation in view. Are these presently ‘unoccupied fields?’
Face with such the knowledge of these Christless millions in land yet unoccupied , knowing the condition of their lives on the unimpeachable testimony of those who have visited these countries, this great unfinished task, this unattempted task, calls today for those who are willing to endure and suffer in accomplishing it. The prospects for the evangelization of all the unoccupied fields are ‘as bright as the promise of God.’The unoccupied fields, therefore, are a challenge to all whose lives are unoccupied by that which is highest and best, whose lives are occupied only with the weak things or the base things that do not count. P.315
Q.1 What grounds does Mott put forward for placing the responsibility of world evangelization on young people?
1. The need of the non-Christian world is an extensive need－all people need Christ
2. We are trustees of the gospel, and in no sense sole proprietors
3. We owe Christ to all Men
4. World evangelization is essential to our own best life－the young people of our day should seek to evangelize the world because it is essential to their own best life. Evangelization need nothing so much as some mightly objective to call out the best energies of mind and heart.
5. Each generation of Christians must make Christ known to its own generation of non-Christian, if they are to have the knowledge of Christ.
Q.2 Identify the statement……… in challenging young people…..to evangelize the world in their generation.
‘Each generation of Christians must make Christ known to its own generation of non-Christian, if they are to have the knowledge of Christ.’ P.320
September 14, 2011 § Leave a comment
Q1…….What ‘fruit’ does he insist must result from consideration of the ‘facts’?
The contemplation of the facts can awaken in many the heartfelt prayer to seek first, from the Lord, and then from His people, the men and the means to carry the gospel into every part of the benighted land. P.308 1st paragraph
Q.2 What observations does Taylor make about the nature and purpose of prayer?
For more than twenty-seven years he has proved the faithfulness of God in various circumstances－at home and abroad, by land and by sea, in sickness and in health, in necessities, in dangers and at the gate of death. He has seen God, in answer to prayers, in supplying the pecuniary means for his own temporal wants, and for the need of the work he has been engaged in, raising up labourers not a few for this vast mission-field, supplying the means requisite for their outfit, passage, and support, and vouchsafing blessing on the efforts of many native Christians and the heathen Chinese in fourteen out of the eighteen provinces referred to. P.308 3rd paragraph
Q.1 What similarities do you observe between Carey, Taylor, and Townsend?
-1.conviction: a depth of conviction, and manifesting their belief with a practical sympathy and purpose and action.
-2.resolution in His calling,
-3.many barriers to overcome,
-4.They have tasted of God’s faithfulness and power and are not frightened by the obstacles that face them. They dare to sing again with utmost confidence of the mighty faith that laughs at impossibilities and shouts, ‘it shall be done!’ p. 309
Q.2 ….Restate the different thrust of each of these passages for missions work among unreached peoples.
1. Matt. 18:11-12 He said: ‘The Son of Man is come to save that which was lost.’ If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountain and seeketh that which is grow astray? －this verse guided the writer ‘forget the other tribes, and stay with the Cakchiquels.’ P.309
2. Luke: 14:16 The man of Luke 14:16 invited many to the great supper he had prepared but they declined. Then he sent messengers into the cities and invited the masses on the streets but still there was room. Finally he sent his messengers to the country trails to bring in guests. They came. Perhaps at long last a special day of opportunity has come for the out-of-the way tribes who have never had the slightest chance. P. 310
3. Rev. 7:9 ‘After this I beheld and lo, a great multitude which no man could number of all nations and kindreds and peoples and TONGUES, stood before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes and palms in their hands.’ They can get there only if they hear the Word in a language they can understand. How else could they be saved? P.310
September 13, 2011 § Leave a comment
Q.1 ……..Are Christian today moved to action by statistics? Why or why not?
Christian today are still moved to action by Great commission given by our Lord to His disciples, the statistics gives us the solemn facts to pray and direct our sphere of action. P.294, 297.
Q.2 …..Summarize his definition of ‘means’?
In addition of fervent and united prayer, we should exert ourselves in the use of means for the obtaining of those things we pray for. It includes the use of every effort, cast their bread upon the waters, cultivate friendship with everyone from whose information they expect the least advantage, rules and regulation of the plans, persons who are to be employed as missionaries, the means of defraying the expense, to procure all the information they could upon the subject, to receive contributions, to enquire into the characters, tempers, abilities and religious views of the missionaries for their undertakings. P. 299
Q.1 ….connection between Taylor’s ‘call to service’ and ‘a new agency is needed’?
Failure of Taylor’s health compelled him relinquishing work for God in China. While detained for some years in England, he learned from Divine Word that, to obtain successful laborers, not elaborate appeals for help, but, first, earnest prayer to God to thrust forth laborers and, second, the deepening of the spiritual life of the Church, so that man should be able to stay at home, were what they needed. He saw that the apostolic plan was not to raise ways and means, but to go and do the work, trusting in His sure Word. After months of earnest prayer and not a few abortive efforts had resulted in a deep conviction that a special agency was essential for the evangelization of Inland China. P.303
Q.2 Taylor’s hesitancy to assume responsibility for a new mission agency?
A long time unbelief hindered him taking the first step. He had not learned to trust God for keeping power and grace for himself that he could not trust Him to keep others who might be prepared to go with him. He feared that in the mist of the dangers, difficulties, and trials which would necessarily be connected with such a work some who were comparatively inexperienced Christian might break down, and bitterly reproach him for having encouraged them to undertake an enterprise for which they were unequal. P.303-304
September 12, 2011 § 1 Comment
1. Trace the roots of the Student Volunteer Movement. (282, col. 1)
- had distant roots in the famous Haystack Prayer Meeting held at Williams College in 1806
- two influential developments came out of that: the Society of Brethren at Andover Theological Seminary and the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1st North American foreign mission agency)
- Robert Wilder, son of Royal Wilder who had once been a missionary to India with the American Board, formed the Princeton Foreign Missionary Society. Their prayers and activities bore fruit in 1886.
- D.L. Moody invited 251 students to Mt. Hermon, MA for month long Bible conf. in July that year. A great burden for world evangelization gripped some of these students. As a result of Dr. A.T. Pierson=s challenge which contained the seed of the SVM watchword (>the evangelization of the world in this generation=), 100 students volunteered for overseas service during the conf.
- during school year 1886-87, two Princeton students, traveled to 167 different schools to share the vision they had received. During that year, they saw 2,106 students volunteer for missionary work.
- movement formally organized in 1888 as result
2. If another student missions movement were to arise today, how do you think it would be similar to and different from the SVM in its origin, characteristics, and effects?
I have no doubt that focused prayer active recruitment across college campuses would play the part it did then. Indeed, it seems it would be much easier to coordinate such a national movement among students today provided the passion and drive is there. I think today we would positively witness an organization that is concerned with both spiritual and physical needs. Missions is not and either/or. The biblical gospel calls us to love whole persons with a myriad of real needs. We must not choose one at the expense of the other. I would hope that a new such organization would have far reaching effects on the church-at-large.
What factors would promote the development of such a movement?
It must be student-initiated and focused on the gospel of Christ and the transmission of that gospel to the nations. I think commitment on behalf some to go to the most dangerous places for the sake of this gospel, to risk their lives, would drastically motivate others.
What factors would hinder its development?
The world has become much more pluralistic and polarized since even the 1920’s. People are more accepting of all faiths. It seems this is especially taught on college campuses. Thus, worldview thinking, a vision for the necessity of mission might be a hindrance. America has become a pretty affluent, comfortable place. Many like getting college degrees and pursuing lucrative jobs. It may seem a very daunting task to do what the pioneers of SVM did.
3. In your own words, explain the decline of the SVM and the lessons to be learned by contemporary students. (284, col. 1)
It seems that the SVM declined for two main reasons: lack of leadership and lack of focus. Many changes in leadership left the organization rudderless, though, ironically it became very top heavy. Perhaps, because of this lack and certainly the influence of liberal theology and an emerging acceptance of the validity of other religions, student interest in missions faded. Missionary education declined. Issues like race relations, economic injustice, and imperialism replaced evangelism and the foreign mission obligation with which earlier students were confronted. The exclusive nature of the Christian gospel began to be questioned and the group naturally migrated to the solution of social and economic problems.
What are the lessons to be learned? The ground and fuel on which it was founded should grab students= attention today and redirect them to the very heart of the missionary impulse: emphasis on personal commitment to Jesus Christ on a lifelong basis, acceptance of the authority of the Word and the message it brings, and a sense of responsibility to give the gospel of Christ to the world in our generation, an urgency go forth, and student initiative to get the task done (285, top of col. 1).
September 11, 2011 § Leave a comment
1. Why might teams of single women bible translators have a more successful record of completing the translation? The necessary cares and concerns of marriage and family would certainly take priority over such and could push any sort of translation work to the periphery altogether. (270, col. 2, para. 1)
2. How might women missionaries by especially effective in male-dominated cultures? Take for instance the example of the missionary involved with a nomadic Muslim group in Sub-Saharan Africa. (271, col. 2) She is effectively training Imams (Islamic teachers) in the gospel. They perceive her to be non-threatening, >just a woman.= She is accepted as a loving, caring elder sister, who gives high priority to their welfare. Further, in particularly Muslim countries women could better minister to women and children, who are often looked down upon. Of course, in any male-dominated culture women might have much success as non-threatening bearers of the gospel of Christ not conquest.
3. In what times and in what ways did women play a dominant role in missons? In the NT church, Priscilla was apparently a woman of some importance to Paul‘s ministry. She and her husband helped train Apollos and hosted a church in their home. Indeed, many women were martyred for their strong faith in Jesus during the first three centuries of the church. In the Catholic tradition, priests, bishops and nuns built churches and hospitals, and founded schools and orphanages in order to establish the faith. After the U.S. Civil War, drastic changes took place among Protestants, who, for a long time generally only sent women as missionary wives or single women to care for missionaries= children or serve alongside the miss. family. Women began their own missionary societies. (271) Certainly, women have always demonstrated a holistic approach with emphasis on both evangelism and meeting human needs (272, bottom first column).
1. Which of the characteristics of the Moravians is most absent from the Christian Church today? Which is most evident? Out of the four mentioned: spontaneous obedience, passion for Christ, courage in the face of danger, and tenacity of purpose, I would say that passion for Christ is missing most in the church today. This was the foundational fire that drove the Moravians, their love for their Savior. Because the majority of Christians have no passion for Jesus, they have no passion for his message or his mission (275, col. 2, second para.). On the other hand, I believe the most evident of the four in the church today, providing all the characteristics of the Moravians are not simply stinging indictments against the modern church, would be their tenacity of purpose. There is a great push among those who are missions minded to pursue and complete the Great Commission. There is great cooperation, strategy, and a persevering spirit among those who say it can be accomplished in the near future (276, col. 2, first para.).
2. What is your answer to the question posed at the end of this article? Why? Here‘s the question: >Have we ears to hear and wills to obey?= The Moravian Church was the first among Protestant churches to treat the work of missions as a responsibility of the church as a whole, instead of leaving it to societies or specially interested people. Will we heed their example? I‘m not sure we have the ability to do so in the West right now. It seems that God might have to remove our materialistic blinders and barriers before we can see his glory, love him aright, and give ourselves wholly, even to the point of martyrdom, for the sake of the gospel. Save some who hear and are willing the vast majority of the church is caught up in other things.